Gala Travels is a family owned and operated travel agency/consolidator. We havebeen serving the Canadian travel industry since 1979. Our affiliations include IATA (International Air Transportation Association), BBB (Better Business Bureau), ACTA (Association of Canadian Travel Agents), and TICO (Travel Industry Council of Ontario). Our reputation stands without a blemish amongst the Canadian Travel Community as a whole. In fact, we hold an A+ rating with the BBB. 

The second image is of Feng "Lisa" Lee, a tea cultivator and business woman from Taipei. It's one of the images of Lisa that was shot in the confines of a photo studio owned by Timothy Huang in mid December 2018. A selection of these studio shots along with other exterior images at the beautiful Lin Ben Yuan Family Mansion (林本源園邸) in Taipei were woven into a photo film titled The Fairy & The Erhu. There is no narration in this audio slideshow....just the lovely sound of the erhu; the traditional Chinese two-stringed bowed musical instrument. 
In March 2018, I traveled to Shanghai to give a lecture and a street workshop at Imaging Group, and recall doing some location scouting in Laoximen with Tamia Tang (my assistant). We met an elderly resident who had lived in her small rooms virtually all her life, and had been told that she would have to vacate them soon. She claimed satisfaction that the city would be offering residents alternative housing or monetary compensation as the weather in Shanghai was too cold for her. 
Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one's passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one's national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers' licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one's own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

Gala Travels has been nothing but a horrible headache!!  The company takes larger deposits than have been verified with guests, they don't update you with information or schedule changes.  They have horrible customer service and refuse to take responsibility for any problems that they cause.  Terrible, Terrible agency, will never book anything with them again, would never recommend them to anyone either!
As with all types of photography, smart business sense is key. There are many ways to make a living with travel photography, and much of it extends well beyond your photo gear into social media marketing, content development, negotiation and sales. But the first step is to get out into the world and shoot. Start with anyplace you've been dreaming of traveling, and go! Plan ahead, do some research, and don't shoot like a tourist. Can't afford to travel? Search for opportunities in your nearest city to begin building your portfolio. 

The image of Sapphire Kiu; a Hong Kong-based model (above), was made in early December 2018 on the famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Temple street, and will be part of a forthcoming audio slideshow (aka photo film) titled "The Songstress of Temple Street". It will tell the story of Qin Yi, a famous Shanghai singer in the 1930s, who "returns" to Hong Kong where she started her career. Some of the images were made in Temple's Street Canton Singing House and the Tin Hau Temple.
Setting goals and thinking about the reason you want to be a travel photographer sounds like a pretty easy step to skip but believe me, you want those goals to look back at one day. When you’ve had a bad few months without work, when you’re knee deep in mud because you took the term ‘getting the shot’ a bit too far…you want to be reminded of why you’re doing it.
"Back when we started Wanderlust, we would invite photographers in with their portfolios. Nowadays, although we do commission some work, we increasingly use online stock libraries to find images for this website and for our magazines. On the one hand, they libraries have a wide range and make it very easy to search. On the other hand, we can find ourselves wading through pages of very average shots that don't offer anything different or fresh. And, so often we struggle to find what we need due to poor tagging by the photographers." 
Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LGW) C$ 631+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LGW) C$ 665+ Flight Halifax - London (YHZ - LGW) C$ 675+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LHR) C$ 685+ Flight Calgary - London (YYC - LGW) C$ 690+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LGW) C$ 690+ Flight Calgary - London (YYC - LHR) C$ 707+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LCY) C$ 725+ Flight Halifax - London (YHZ - LHR) C$ 739+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LTN) C$ 773+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LHR) C$ 773+ Flight Toronto - London (YTZ - LHR) C$ 780+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LTN) C$ 793+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LTN) C$ 797+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LHR) C$ 801+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - STN) C$ 805+ Flight Calgary - London (YYC - LCY) C$ 830+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LCY) C$ 834+ Flight Ottawa - London (YOW - LHR) C$ 840+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LCY) C$ 864+ Flight Ottawa - London (YOW - LGW) C$ 897+ Flight Edmonton - London (YEG - LGW) C$ 909+
My personal opinion -after having met many such characters- in India; either in Varanasi, Rishikesh, Vrindavan et al, as well as at the Kumbh Mela, is that the majority of them are fake in the sense that they're not dedicated ascetics, but individuals who are adopted a vagabondage lifestyle, begging for alms and food...under the guise of being holy and religious.

Some of these 'singalong' parlors still exist, faded and tired but otherwise unchanged, offering a taste of popular and cheap entertainment from a past era. How these survive in anyone's guess. The parlors usually have an organist (who can also play a guitar) and a handful of habitual customers who sing Cantonese songs...and occasionally Western oldies such as "Sealed With A Kiss" by the Canton Singing House organist.
Whether you're licensing photos through an agency or you're working with local businesses, destination photos sell. If you're just starting out, consider uploading your best work to sites like 500px, where you can offer your images for license quite easily. If you already have a strong portfolio of work, consider applying to Stocksy, the most reputable agency in the stock photo business. Interested in reportage? You can sign up for a Demotix account to get started in travel photojournalism.
Once a black image is created, I clicked on File> Add Layer(s) From File, and used the Quick Mask tool (yellow arrow on left) to "paint" a line around Gui Lian. The Quick Mask tool wasn't sufficiently precise in blacking out all of the targeted areas, so I also used the Masking Brush tool (red arrow) and went over these areas on complete the task....a task that took me no more than 12 minutes; well within my range of tolerance. I then pumped up the saturation using Iridium Developer tools...a task that took under a minute.
Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one's passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one's national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers' licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one's own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

That would point to the Lakers as another possible destination for a trade. — Brett Martel, The Seattle Times, "Agent: Anthony Davis tells New Orleans that he wants a trade," 29 Jan. 2019 Will and Kate reportedly chose the island of Mustique as the destination for their trip, which coincides with George's fifth birthday. — Kayleigh Roberts, Marie Claire, "Prince George Is Reportedly Celebrating His Birthday on a Private Island, NBD," 22 July 2018 The sitter can accompany a child to the airport, on the plane and to a destination. — Kay Manning, chicagotribune.com, "Considering having a child fly solo? Here's what to know," 29 June 2018 According to their leaked Save The Date invitation, the couple have chosen France for a picturesque, destination wedding in 2019. — Lucy Wood, Marie Claire, "Sophie Turner and Joe Jonas Were Absolutely the Cutest at the Grammys After Party," 11 Feb. 2019 But clicking though the digital album of a destination wedding has its own distinct appeal. — Christian Allaire, Vogue, "The Most Extravagant and Enviable Destination Weddings in Vogue," 11 Jan. 2019 The jet continued to its destination and landed safely. — Dominic Gates, The Seattle Times, "Lion Air pilots struggled against Boeing’s 737 MAX flight-control system, black-box data shows," 27 Nov. 2018 Following their gorgeous destination wedding in Italy last spring, the couple jetted off to Ecuador to do community-building work for the charity organization WE—and famously invited Drew's twin brother Jonathan along! — Taysha Murtaugh, Country Living, "Property Brothers' Drew Scott on Balancing Work and Married Life With Wife Linda," 19 Nov. 2018 What has quickly become a year-round destination, Beaver Creek offers the unique experience of a lifetime for anyone looking for adventure, fun, and inspiration. — Discover Magazine, "One-on-One with Executive Chef Kevin Erving," 6 July 2018


Content development complements your photography and helps you grow and earn beyond your photos. If you're a gearhead like photographer Colby Brown, you could write in-depth gear reviews, or publish post-processing tutorials like Elia Locardi, or write a how-to book like Nicole S. Young. If you enjoy travel writing, you could build a popular blog like photographer Chris Stevens, who writes travel guides and reviews popular hostels and adventure tours, complete with photos.
Thanks to CheapAir, you can book the most comfortable and cheapest flights to your favorite cities. Beyond just buying discount flights, we also help you find and book flights with wifi and other amenities to make your journey enjoyable. Cheap Air is your trusted online travel agency. Since 1989, our customers have relied on us for airline flights at affordable rates. We're so confident about our cheap flights that the flights you book on CheapAir.com are eligible for our exclusive Price Drop Payback™ program. If the CheapAir flight price is lower after buying, we'll send you a voucher for the difference, up to $100 per ticket. Hooray!
In March 2018, I traveled to Shanghai to give a lecture and a street workshop at Imaging Group, and recall doing some location scouting in Laoximen with Tamia Tang (my assistant). We met an elderly resident who had lived in her small rooms virtually all her life, and had been told that she would have to vacate them soon. She claimed satisfaction that the city would be offering residents alternative housing or monetary compensation as the weather in Shanghai was too cold for her. 
Flight Toronto - Montreal (YYZ - YUL) C$ 119+ Flight Québec City - Montreal (YQB - YUL) C$ 206+ Flight Toronto - Montreal (YTZ - YUL) C$ 221+ Flight Windsor - Montreal (YQG - YUL) C$ 283+ Flight Halifax - Montreal (YHZ - YUL) C$ 290+ Flight Thunder Bay - Montreal (YQT - YUL) C$ 300+ Flight London - Montreal (YXU - YUL) C$ 352+ Flight Calgary - Montreal (YYC - YUL) C$ 393+ Flight Saint John - Montreal (YSJ - YUL) C$ 402+ Flight Winnipeg - Montreal (YWG - YUL) C$ 404+ Flight Fredericton - Montreal (YFC - YUL) C$ 412+ Flight Moncton - Montreal (YQM - YUL) C$ 415+ Flight St. John's - Montreal (YYT - YUL) C$ 429+ Flight Vancouver - Montreal (YVR - YUL) C$ 436+
The third image is of Jinru Lee; a student and part-time model in Georgetown (Penang Island, Malaysia). It was made in late August 2018 under the sweltering sun of Penang, and inside the Cheah Kongsi Clan House Temple on Lebuh Armenian. I was in Penang to photograph the various Hokkien operas during the Hungry Ghost festival, and took the opportunity to set a photo shoot in its streets for a forthcoming audio slideshow (aka photo film) titled "The Phantom of the Opera". 
Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LGW) C$ 631+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LGW) C$ 665+ Flight Halifax - London (YHZ - LGW) C$ 675+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LHR) C$ 685+ Flight Calgary - London (YYC - LGW) C$ 690+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LGW) C$ 690+ Flight Calgary - London (YYC - LHR) C$ 707+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LCY) C$ 725+ Flight Halifax - London (YHZ - LHR) C$ 739+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LTN) C$ 773+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LHR) C$ 773+ Flight Toronto - London (YTZ - LHR) C$ 780+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LTN) C$ 793+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - LTN) C$ 797+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LHR) C$ 801+ Flight Toronto - London (YYZ - STN) C$ 805+ Flight Calgary - London (YYC - LCY) C$ 830+ Flight Vancouver - London (YVR - LCY) C$ 834+ Flight Ottawa - London (YOW - LHR) C$ 840+ Flight Montreal - London (YUL - LCY) C$ 864+ Flight Ottawa - London (YOW - LGW) C$ 897+ Flight Edmonton - London (YEG - LGW) C$ 909+
Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one's surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one's passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one's national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers' licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one's own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]
However I didn't realize that he had done lovely work documenting a rural Chinese opera troupe in Sichuan featured on the International Business Times..thus providing me with valuable inspiration for my own long term book project involving Chinese opera of the Diaspora. My primary focus in this project is on the "rural" or provincial troupes who perform their art during Chinese celebrations and religious observances.
The Yuen Po street Bird Garden in Hong Kong was built in the late 1990's after the former "Bird Street" at Hong Lok Street was demolished. It was built to preserve the spirit and popularity of the bird stalls that once were in Mongkok. The Chinese have traditionally liked to keep birds as pets, and this tradition is maintained in this small garden. Men (I've not seen a woman there except those selling birds, birdseed and live crickets) walk around; whistling at the caged birds, from delicate canaries to colorful parrots, admiring their plumage and a few walking their pets in cages.
The other challenge is to scout for and find the locations for the photo shoots; locations that provide a "badge" of authenticity to the resulting photo films. In the the case of The Girl of Nanjing, it was the water town of Qi Bao near Shanghai....and in the case of The Legend of Hua, it was the water town of Xinchang' at some distance from Shanghai as well...while the backdrop to The Songstress of Temple Street was Hong Kong's famous Tin Hau Temple and the Canton Singing House.
Flight Toronto - Fort Lauderdale (YHM - FLL) C$ 254+ Flight Toronto - Fort Lauderdale (YYZ - FLL) C$ 269+ Flight Montreal - Fort Lauderdale (YUL - FLL) C$ 304+ Flight Halifax - Fort Lauderdale (YHZ - FLL) C$ 329+ Flight Ottawa - Fort Lauderdale (YOW - FLL) C$ 340+ Flight Calgary - Fort Lauderdale (YYC - FLL) C$ 353+ Flight Vancouver - Fort Lauderdale (YVR - FLL) C$ 374+
As with all types of photography, smart business sense is key. There are many ways to make a living with travel photography, and much of it extends well beyond your photo gear into social media marketing, content development, negotiation and sales. But the first step is to get out into the world and shoot. Start with anyplace you've been dreaming of traveling, and go! Plan ahead, do some research, and don't shoot like a tourist. Can't afford to travel? Search for opportunities in your nearest city to begin building your portfolio.
To be honest, I do not think I will ever make it as a travel photographer. I love travelling and I love capturing my adventures in pictures. And I know that I have some decent ones, but selling them seems like a daunting task. I think I might be better off as a travel journalist, to be honest, if only because that’s an area where I am more confident (and in a way, this article applies to becoming a travel journalist as well). I have, however, tried selling pictures through microstock sites. Getty Images, Shutterstock and Adobe Stock are the ones I have uploaded the highest number of images to. From my experience, these websites require you to spend a long time creating hashtags and correctly labeling your photos for very little reward. It is great because once the work is done, you can earn money forever. But chances are high that you will only get a few cents, if any at all. I think if you are serious about being a photographer, this one is not an option to consider.
Knowing how to use your camera is essential to success as a travel photographer because more often than not, it’s those spur of the moment shots that generate the goods. If you can quickly adapt to the surroundings and know what settings to change in a split-second in order to capture a moment, you’re in with a pretty good shot of becoming a professional photographer.
"Back when we started Wanderlust, we would invite photographers in with their portfolios. Nowadays, although we do commission some work, we increasingly use online stock libraries to find images for this website and for our magazines. On the one hand, they libraries have a wide range and make it very easy to search. On the other hand, we can find ourselves wading through pages of very average shots that don't offer anything different or fresh. And, so often we struggle to find what we need due to poor tagging by the photographers." 
The Andromeda Strain (1971) Dealing: Or the Berkeley-to-Boston Forty-Brick Lost-Bag Blues (1972) The Carey Treatment (1972) Pursuit (1972) The Terminal Man (1974) The First Great Train Robbery (1979) Jurassic Park (1993) Rising Sun (1993) Disclosure (1994) Congo (1995) The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) Sphere (1998) The 13th Warrior (1999) Timeline (2003) The Andromeda Strain (2008)
My personal opinion -after having met many such characters- in India; either in Varanasi, Rishikesh, Vrindavan et al, as well as at the Kumbh Mela, is that the majority of them are fake in the sense that they're not dedicated ascetics, but individuals who are adopted a vagabondage lifestyle, begging for alms and food...under the guise of being holy and religious.
Travel photography is a genre of photography that may involve the documentation of an area's landscape, people, cultures, customs and history. The Photographic Society of America defines a travel photo as an image that expresses the feeling of a time and place, portrays a land, its people, or a culture in its natural state, and has no geographical limitations.[1]
I introduced myself, telling Chan I had read articles about him. He didn't seem surprised at all, and brought a photo book -carefully wrapped in plastic- to show me more photos and a write up about him, along with other craftsmen in Hong Kong. I had seen Sunset Survivors; a book that tells the stories of Hong Kong’s traditional tradesmen and women through imagery and interviews. It covers a number of curious professions that are quickly falling into obscurity, from fortune telling to face threading and letter writing to bird cage making in the streets of old Hong Kong.
It was in 2006 when I traveled to the sacred city of Varanasi for the third or fourth time; this time in search of real sadhus rather than those I encountered on the ghats of the river Ganges. The more photogenically flamboyant of those would "earn" a few rupees from tourists and photographers who sought to augment their inventory of exotic portraits of these characters; perhaps paying them a tidy sum if they agreed to be photographed in a rowing boat or next to a temple.
It was in 2006 when I traveled to the sacred city of Varanasi for the third or fourth time; this time in search of real sadhus rather than those I encountered on the ghats of the river Ganges. The more photogenically flamboyant of those would "earn" a few rupees from tourists and photographers who sought to augment their inventory of exotic portraits of these characters; perhaps paying them a tidy sum if they agreed to be photographed in a rowing boat or next to a temple.

The patrician-looking (and rather taciturn) sadhu in the top photograph did tell me that he had a family, had held a managerial position in the Indian Railway from which he earned a pension (now paid to his wife), but had decided to detach himself from temporal life and was currently studying the Vedas. These are the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. He was the embodiment of a real sadhu who had really espoused the Vairāgya, and was far different from the "sadhus" I encountered on the ghats of Varanasi (below) almost 8 years later.


Flight Montreal - Toronto (YUL - YYZ) C$ 128+ Flight Montreal - Toronto (YUL - YTZ) C$ 209+ Flight Winnipeg - Toronto (YWG - YYZ) C$ 213+ Flight Ottawa - Toronto (YOW - YTZ) C$ 242+ Flight Halifax - Toronto (YHZ - YYZ) C$ 262+ Flight Québec City - Toronto (YQB - YTZ) C$ 290+ Flight Fredericton - Toronto (YFC - YYZ) C$ 308+ Flight Edmonton - Toronto (YEG - YYZ) C$ 320+ Flight Québec City - Toronto (YQB - YYZ) C$ 322+ Flight Abbotsford - Toronto (YXX - YYZ) C$ 329+ Flight Halifax - Toronto (YHZ - YTZ) C$ 334+ Flight Vancouver - Toronto (YVR - YYZ) C$ 349+ Flight Calgary - Toronto (YYC - YYZ) C$ 350+ Flight Kelowna - Toronto (YLW - YYZ) C$ 352+ Flight St. John's - Toronto (YYT - YYZ) C$ 360+ Flight St. John's - Toronto (YYT - YTZ) C$ 433+ Flight Regina - Toronto (YQR - YYZ) C$ 456+ Flight Sydney - Toronto (YQY - YYZ) C$ 463+ Flight Saskatoon - Toronto (YXE - YYZ) C$ 469+ Flight Edmonton - Toronto (YEG - YTZ) C$ 536+ Flight Calgary - Toronto (YYC - YTZ) C$ 543+ Flight Victoria - Toronto (YYJ - YYZ) C$ 562+ Flight Vancouver - Toronto (YVR - YTZ) C$ 590+ Flight Winnipeg - Toronto (YWG - YTZ) C$ 714+ 

The most interesting sites for people photography in both Taipei and Hong Kong are in and near temples such as Man Mo and Longshan. The night markets are also a trove for photogenic characters such as the tattooed fellow who stood akimbo guarding his inventory of bric a brac items that lay down in Xichiang market...whether this inventory was honestly procured or otherwise is left to the imagination of viewers.
To be honest, I do not think I will ever make it as a travel photographer. I love travelling and I love capturing my adventures in pictures. And I know that I have some decent ones, but selling them seems like a daunting task. I think I might be better off as a travel journalist, to be honest, if only because that’s an area where I am more confident (and in a way, this article applies to becoming a travel journalist as well). I have, however, tried selling pictures through microstock sites. Getty Images, Shutterstock and Adobe Stock are the ones I have uploaded the highest number of images to. From my experience, these websites require you to spend a long time creating hashtags and correctly labeling your photos for very little reward. It is great because once the work is done, you can earn money forever. But chances are high that you will only get a few cents, if any at all. I think if you are serious about being a photographer, this one is not an option to consider.
I introduced myself, telling Chan I had read articles about him. He didn't seem surprised at all, and brought a photo book -carefully wrapped in plastic- to show me more photos and a write up about him, along with other craftsmen in Hong Kong. I had seen Sunset Survivors; a book that tells the stories of Hong Kong’s traditional tradesmen and women through imagery and interviews. It covers a number of curious professions that are quickly falling into obscurity, from fortune telling to face threading and letter writing to bird cage making in the streets of old Hong Kong.
The other challenge is to scout for and find the locations for the photo shoots; locations that provide a "badge" of authenticity to the resulting photo films. In the the case of The Girl of Nanjing, it was the water town of Qi Bao near Shanghai....and in the case of The Legend of Hua, it was the water town of Xinchang' at some distance from Shanghai as well...while the backdrop to The Songstress of Temple Street was Hong Kong's famous Tin Hau Temple and the Canton Singing House.

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome. However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[7]
Gala Travels is a family owned and operated travel agency/consolidator. We havebeen serving the Canadian travel industry since 1979. Our affiliations include IATA (International Air Transportation Association), BBB (Better Business Bureau), ACTA (Association of Canadian Travel Agents), and TICO (Travel Industry Council of Ontario). Our reputation stands without a blemish amongst the Canadian Travel Community as a whole. In fact, we hold an A+ rating with the BBB.
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The word travel has come to exemplify a common spelling quandary: to double or not to double the final consonant of a verb before adding the ending that forms the past tense ( –ed ) or the ending that forms the present-participle ( –ing. ) We see it done both ways—sometimes with the same word ( travel, traveled, traveling; travel, travelled, travelling ). As readers, we accept these variations without even thinking about them. But as writers, we need to know just when we should double that final consonant and when we should not. Because American practice differs slightly from British practice, there is no one answer. But there are well-established conventions. In American writing, when you have a one-syllable verb that ends with a single vowel followed by a single consonant, and you want to add a regular inflectional ending that begins with a vowel, you double that final consonant before adding -ed or -ing : stop, stopped, stopping; flag, flagged, flagging. This principle also holds for verbs of more than one syllable if the final syllable is stressed: permit, permitted, permitting; refer, referred, referring. If that syllable is not stressed, there is no doubling of the final consonant: gallop, galloped, galloping; travel, traveled, traveling. British spelling conventions are similar. They deviate from American practices only when the verb ends with a single vowel followed by an l . In that case, no matter the stress pattern, the final l gets doubled. Thus British writing has repel, repelled, repelling (as would American writing, since the final syllable is stressed). But it also has travel, travelled, travelling and cancel, cancelled, cancelling, since in the context of British writing the verb’s final l, not its stress pattern, is the determining factor. Verbs ending in other consonants have the same doubling patterns that they would have in American writing. An outlier on both sides of the Atlantic is the small group of verbs ending in -ic and one lonely -ac verb. They require an added k before inflectional endings in order to retain the appropriate “hard” sound of the letter c : panic, panicked, panicking; frolic, frolicked, frolicking; shellac, shellacked, shellacking. Canadians, of course, are free to use either British or American spellings.
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